Research reading and explanation – Facebook usage


  • Kross, E., Verduyn, P., Demiralp, E., Park, J., Lee, D. S., Lin, N., … & Ybarra, O. (2013). Facebook use predicts declines in subjective well-being in young adults. PloS one, 8(8), e69841



In this research Kross et. al (2013) examined the question, “How does Facebook usage influence subjective well-being over time?” by using experience-sampling. Previous research has only examined a limited of online subjective well-being. Kross et. al (2013) measured in-vivo behavior and psychological experience through text-messaging (containing a survey link) participants five times per day for 14 days. Before and after following the 14 day sampling participants completed questionnaire examining how interacting with Facebook influences how people feel :affective” well-being and how satisfied they are with their lives “cognitive” well-being. Results indicated that, participants do not use Facebook more or less depending on how they feel, the more Facebook use the more participants life satisfaction levels declined over time. This research concluded that, using Facebook predicts declines in subjective well-being in how people feel and how satisfied they are with their lives and no evidence was found to support alternatives for these results. These results suggest that Facebook use may form a unique social network interaction that predicts impoverished well-being.

  1. Verduyn, P., Lee, D. S., Park, J., Shablack, H., Orvell, A., Bayer, J., … & Kross, E. (2015). Passive Facebook usage undermines affective well-being: Experimental and longitudinal evidence. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 144(2), 480.

In this summary, Verduyn (2015) examined 2 studies addressing the question “How does Facebook usage lead to decline in subjective well-being?” whether this is done by participants actively or passively. Previous cross-section work has linked passive Facebook usage with lower levels of subjective well-being. Verduyn (2015) method for study 1, manipulated participants Facebook usage to be passively rather than actively. Study 2, performed an experience-sampling of 1 week active versus passive Facebook usage in daily life impact on well-being. Results indicated that, participants used Facebook more passively more than actively and passive usage did not interact with direct social interaction and active Facebook usage.  The research goes on to concluded that, interacting with Facebook has negative impacts on subjective well-being and further enhances envy within passive usage. In study 2 specifically, participants were found to have used Facebook passively 50% more than participants in study 1. These findings suggest people spend a great of amount engaging in behavior that is undermining to their affective well-being however it was found that neither active or passive Facebook usage declined life satisfaction. Overall, this research ends with concluding that it is possible that people are simple unaware of how interacting on Facebook influences their well-being and emotions.

  1. Burke, M., & Kraut, R. E. (2016). The Relationship between Facebook Use and WellBeing depends on Communication Type and Tie Strength. Journal of ComputerMediated Communication, 21(4), 265-281


In this article (Burke & Kraut, 2016) explore predictions made by theories (belongingness, relationship maintenance, signals of relational investment, social support, and social comparison) on how communication type and partner in an SNS influence psychological well-being.  Burke & Kraut (2016) differentiate in three ways; (1) targeted, composed communication, (2) stylized or “one-click” communication and (3) composed, broadcast communication. In order to conduct this relationship between communication on SNSs and well-being an opt-in three wave panel survey of Facebook users was explored. The results of these series of communication variables reveals that participants well-being increased most when they received composed, targeted communication from strong ties however, receiving broadcast, weak-tie or one-click feedback communication did not have similar effects.  Research concludes by providing evidence that the effects of well-being depend on the nature of the communication and the relationship between those who communicating with one another. The effects of online interactions influence on well-being we found to depend on how people use the SNSs which derive benefits from online communication.

  1. How, when, and why using social media such as Facebook can positively AND negatively impact a person’s well-being, mental health, etc.

Verduyn et. al (2015) research mentions, how passive Facebook usage undermines affective well-being and suggest that people spend a lot of time engaging in behavioristics that undermines their well-being. In my opinion, the ways in which people choose to use FB does impact their well-being and most importantly their mental health (i.e. inspirational quotes or negative memes). Every morning millions of people wake up and have the choice to use FB in a positive or negative way. However, I also believe people are impacted by the way others choose to use social media rather that’s in a good or bad way which further effects their well-being and mental health by just simply viewing that other persons post. We as a society, that is continuously growing in this new world of technology must continue the research on how social media impacts our well-being in a positive and negative way given we are only in the early stages of social media.